Asian Power & Energy Front
Watch the latest videos on YouTube.com

Site Map
| Who am I| | Asian Power & Energy Front| | Photos | | Japanese Version |

Since 1998 October
(本更新直前598,188, メルマガ配信数 1.475)


ー January 20, 2010 ー India and China competing in Africa ー

January 20, 2010 - India and China competing in Africa -

This is edited from the Japanese Version only by eliminating Japanese phrases.



















From YouTube



Inside Story - India-Africa summit - 08 April 08 - Part 1
Delhi is aiming to strengthen trade and diplomatic ties.


India and Africa



reported by Xinhua

















元へ戻る

Today's subject

●100120C India, livemint
インドと中国はアフリカのガーナなどで資源を狙って議事堂作りを競っている
India, China build parliaments for better Africa ties
http://my.reset.jp/adachihayao/index100120C.htm

http://www.livemint.com/2010/01/18233907/India-China-build-parliaments.html


Other world energy news today

○100120B Philippines, Manila Bulletin
フィリッピンのビサヤスの246MWトレド発電所が運転開始
Toledo plan capacity starts easing power supply in Visayas
http://www.mb.com.ph/articles/239200/toledo-plan-capacity-starts-easing-power-supply-visayas
○100120C India, livemint
インドと中国はアフリカのガーナなどで資源を狙って議事堂作りを競っている
India, China build parliaments for better Africa ties
http://www.livemint.com/2010/01/18233907/India-China-build-parliaments.html
○100120D India, Economic Times
インドのGAILは中国ミャンマーのパイプラインに4%資本参加
Gail to buy 4% in Myanmar-China project
http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/news-by-industry/energy/oil-gas/Gail-to-buy-4-in-Myanmar-China-project/articleshow/5474959.cms
○100120E Indonesia, The Jakarta Post
インドネシアの東ジャワで更にLNGターミナルを2億ドルで計画
Pertamina to build a $200m LNG terminal in East Java
http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2010/01/19/pertamina-build-a-200m-lng-terminal-east-java.html
○100120F China, news.xinhuanet
中国の福建省のニントー原子力の第3号機の建設に着手
East China's Fujian builds new nuclear generator
http://news.xinhuanet.com/english2010/photo/2010-01/08/c_13133085.htm
○100120G China, news.xinhuanet
中国の2010年の電力消費は7%の伸び
China's power consumption to grow 7 pct in 2010
http://news.xinhuanet.com/english2010/business/2010-01/18/c_13141404.htm


Japanese energy news today

○Ozawa issue
検察大増員「小沢まで行く」側近元秘書は号泣“完落ち”
http://www.zakzak.co.jp/society/domestic/news/20100119/dms1001191627009-n2.htm
○Nigeria violednce killed 150
ナイジェリアで宗教衝突、死者150人以上・負傷者多数
http://jp.reuters.com/article/worldNews/idJPJAPAN-13422620100120
○Vietnam increase buying electricity from outside
ベトナム,外国からの買電量、今年は330億kW時
http://news.searchina.ne.jp/disp.cgi?y=2010&d=0120&f=stockname_0120_066.shtml
○China coal firm expanding tranportatio
山西焦煤集団が石炭不足に対処し、供給を確保するための措置
http://www.xinhua.jp/socioeconomy/244916/
○Mitsubishi Heavy Industry established the factory for nuclear
三菱重工業、原子力タービンの鍛造翼専用工場が竣工
http://www.asahi.com/business/pressrelease/JCN201001200004.html
○Ozawa issue
小沢氏口座記録、20年分を分析 地検、銀行から入手
http://www.asahi.com/seikenkotai2009/TKY201001200257.html
○China coal firm expanding coal production
中国中煤能源集団公司「2009年中煤集団の石炭生産高は1億2500万トン
http://www.xinhua.jp/industry/244908/
○Toyota Tusho inveting Lgentine litume
豊田通商、リチウム権益取得=アルゼンチンで、環境車増産に対応
http://www.jiji.com/jc/c?g=ind_30&k=2010012000380


Main contents

●India, China build parliaments for better Africa ties

Rivalry between India and China for control of natural resources and energy assets beyond their borders has acquired a new dimension. The Asian giants are now competing to build parliaments in African countries deemed to be of strategic importance as they seek to gain an extra edge in their quest for energy resources. India is building Ghana’s parliament. China is constructing parliaments in Malawi and Lesotho, and ...

Africa-India summit,photo source:
http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-04/08/content_7939210.htm


China-Africa trade,map source:
http://blackmaps.files.wordpress.com/2009/11/china_africa-trade_2006.jpg,



(注)C (1) 100120C India, livemint,(2) title: India, China build parliaments for better Africa ties,(3) http://www.livemint.com/2010/01/18233907/India-China-build-parliaments.html,(4) New Delhi,(5) Ghana,(6) Malawi,(7) Lesotho,(8) Zimbabwe,(9) dwarfed,小さく見せる,(10) Brahma Chellaney, professor of strategic studies at the Centre for Policy Research,(11) India-Africa Forum summit held in India in 2008,(12) Zhou Haihong, first secretary and deputy head of mission at the Chinese embassy in Malawi.,(13) Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao,(14) uranium, coal and bauxite deposits,(15) Anish De, chief executive at Mercados Asia,(16) International Energy Agency,(17) China-Africa trade,map source: http://blackmaps.files.wordpress.com/2009/11/china_africa-trade_2006.jpg,(18) Africa-India summit,photo source: http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-04/08/content_7939210.htm,(19)


今日の参考資料

●100120C India, livemint
インドと中国はアフリカのガーナなどで資源を狙って議事堂作りを競っている
India, China build parliaments for better Africa ties
http://my.reset.jp/adachihayao/index100120C.htm

http://www.livemint.com/2010/01/18233907/India-China-build-parliaments.html

最近の関連資料

●091126G India, steelguru
インドの石炭不足は深刻で2012年には8,000万トンの輸入が必要
Acute coal shortage to push up import
http://my.reset.jp/adachihayao/index091126G.htm
●091101H Congo,in.reuters
コンゴ共和国の水力開発などでインドが263百万ドルの借款を供与
India grants Congo $263 mln in infrastructure loans
http://my.reset.jp/adachihayao/index091101H.htm
●100107F China, ips europe
中国の企業による無軌道な海外投資に北京の体面を汚し反動が
BACKLASH AGAINST ROGUE CHINESE INVESTORS ALARMS BEIJING
http://my.reset.jp/adachihayao/index100107F.htm
○100104G China, thenational.ae
中国の海軍基地の拡張が国際的な疑いを呼んでいる
China’s naval base proposal may raise suspicion
http://www.thenational.ae/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20100103/FOREIGN/701029871/1140
●100101G China, upi
中国海軍は資源の確保に向けてアデン湾にも海軍基地を確保へ
China's navy mulls push into Arabian Sea
http://my.reset.jp/adachihayao/index100101G.htm
●091204G Ghana, graphicghana
ガーナのブイダムは中国企業によって順調に進捗
Bui Power Project On Course
http://my.reset.jp/adachihayao/index091204G.htm
●091122E China, www.ogj
中国の国家石油CNPCがスーダン政府と石油精製などで協定を締結
CNPC signs new agreements with Sudan
http://my.reset.jp/adachihayao/index091122E.htm
●091117F China, wsws
中国のアフリカ会議は米国などの牽制にもかかわらずその進出に歯止め効かず
China continues its aggressive pursuit of Africa’s resources
http://my.reset.jp/adachihayao/index091117F.htm


*************************************************************************************************
今日の原油価格 (crude oil price)今日の石炭価格 (coal price)今日の天然ガス価格 (natural gas price)
今日のメコン河水位 (Mekong Vientiane water level),*************************************************************************************************




























元へ戻る



Past News

●India NTPC 70,000MW in 2017 (100119)
●Indonesia adopting coal domestic obligation (100117)
●Indonesia President Decree for private participation (100115)
●Cambodia dam to be consructed by China (100114)
●Philippines renewable energy rules (100112)
●India power development delay minister Shinde (100111)
●Indonesia Asahan No.3 loan from JBIC (100110)
●Indonesia Kalimantan gets UAE investment (100108)
●China facing backlash by recepient contries (100107)
●Myanmar encouraging private hydro dvelopment (100106)
●China expanding LNG imports (100105)
●Philippines Luzon grid needs new power by 2014 (100104)
●Myanmar power reached to 2,256MW (100102)
●Chinese navy establishing port in Arabian Sea (100101)

●Philippines Diduyon hydro bagged by Chinese firm (091231)
●Philippines DOE to proceed additional renewable (091229)
●India welcoming Hatoyama with nuclear issue (091228)
●Cambodia government deported 20 Uygruhs (091227)
●China hard negotiation between coal and power (091225)
●Indonesia proposes geothermal with public and private (091224)
●Thailand Egat sensitive to natural gas (091223)
●Myanmar pipeline China get franchise right by Xi (091222)
●China smart grid market 600 billion dollars (091218)
●China winter comming for coal emergency (091217)
●Indonesia 10,000MW to be complete by 2013 (091216)
●Peru 2000MW Inambari hydro to be imported by Brazil (091215)
●Turkey 309MW Ermanek hydro under construction (091214)
●Mekong media forum discuss China dams (091213)
●Indonesia needs 7.6 billion dollars for 2nd cash program (091211)
●COP15 nuclear power substantial for climate change (091210)
●Exsson 15 billion gas project in Papua New Guinea (091209)
●Myanmar Arakan proceedong three hydro 687MW (091208)
●India energy focus on clean coal technology (091207)
●Indonesia facing power shortage (091206)
●Ghana Bui dam starts construction by Chinese (091204)
●China CDM projects suspended due to additionality (091203)
●Indonesian oil decline and LNG problem (091202)
●China CDM evolution not revolution (091201)

●India strongly responded to China proposal of reduction (091129)
●Indonesia eyeing Middle East oil resources (091127)
●Indian coal shortage its reason (091126)
●Indonesia mining law threaten international firms (091124)
●Myanmar dams under progress by China (091123)
●Indian nuclear and China oil in Sudan (091122)
●Indonesia coal export stable in future 5 years (091120)
●India BHEL expanding facilities for UHV transformers (091119)
●Thailand nuclear plan being cooperated by Chinese firms (091118)
●China's policy for Africa development and US (091117)
●Vietnam constructing more dam in Da river upstream (091115)
●Brazil’s Integrated Power Grid Vulnerable to Massive Blackouts (091113)
●Bhutan 10,000MW hydro development heavy for India fund (091112)
●India pwer sector needs 250 billion dollars for 7 to 8 years (091110)
●Nepal hydropower Chinese firm into first time (091109)
●China globaly eyeing uranium and fuel resources (091108)
●Indonesia decided floating LNG plant in Arafura Sea (091106)
●India sill fears dams in Burhamaputra by China (091106)
●Vietnam hundreds of dams under construction in central (091104)
●Myanmar US high official meeting in Myanmar (091103)
●Philippines PNOC eyeing investment partner for hydro (091102)
●Philippines renewable energy $2.2 billion awarded (091101)

●Rwanda getting Chinese huge investment for menerals (091030)
●Ethiopia developping road networks and dams (091029)
●Nigeria and Chinese firms tackling their strategies in oil (091028)
●Vietnam large scale coal-fired in southern coast (091026)
●China sea lane from Srilanka to Africa (091025)
●JBIC and Toshiba global tiger operation in India (091023)
●India and China agreed on climate change cooperation (091022)
●China fund investing Guinea 7 billion dollars with Angola firm (091021)
●China may rely on her own shale gas without imports (091020)
●Philippines PNOC-RC seeking hydropower partner for 300MW total (091019)
●Chinese Brhamaptra project 510mw run-off type (091017)
India and China heating up for projects on Brhamaptra and Indus (091016)
●Indonesia plans coal export ceeling at 150 milliom tons annually (091015)
●Philippines starts deepsea well drilling in Sulu Sea with Exxon (091014)
●Vietnam power sector in dilemma between coal and tarif (091012)
●India not opted by Iran for Azadegan oilfield (091011)
●Indonesia Sunda Srait marine cable to be by JICA assistance (091010)
●Thailand nuclear power development 59% oppose (091009)
●LNG price downturn make weary oil majors (091007)
●India Coal CIL chief goes around the world for coal import (091006)
●Indian nuclear development suported by global firms (091005)
●US energy fims eyeing markets in India and Mekong (091003)
●Indonesia irritating for oil and gas exploitation (091002)

●India nuclear power development proguressing (090930)
●China wind and nuclear powers each has headache (090928)
●India and China responded to G20 agreement with less positive (090927)
●Philippines energy ministry expects to implement 1,000MW plants (090926)
●China Sovereign Wealth Fund shifting to world resources (090925)
●Indonesian energy resources of gas and coal (090925)
●China no solution in sight to Spratlys dispute (090923)
●China to launch impressive green gas ruduction policies (090922)
●Thailand EGAT may short in 2010 because of gas (090921)
●Bangladesh eyeing nuclear power with Russian assistance (090920)
●India coal proven reserve 257.4 billion tons (090919)
●Vietnam nuclear power development seminar with Japan (090918)
●Vietnam Red River Delta coal potenntial 200 billion tons (090917)
●Pakistan debates Kohala hydro to Chinese firm (090916)
●Philippines hydropower IPPA bidding starts (090915)
●India overseas coal due to shortage of coking coal (090913)
●Nuclear power boosting for global climate change (090912)
●China oil CNPC obtained $30 billion for overseas resources (090911)
●Why India and China eyeing oversea coal resources (090910)
●Indonesisa PLN needs additional $2billion for crash program (090909)
●Pakistan Bunji hydropower to be BOT by Chinese firm (090908)
●Nepal hydropower development between India and China (090907)
●India power market price skyrocketing to 23 cents (090906)
●China eyeing coal to be replaced by natural gas (090905)
●Indonesia approved Inpex proposal for floating LNG plant (090904)
●Spratly Islands may have 200 billion barrels potenntial (090903)
●Nationalism for resources in Nepal and Indonesia (090901)

●China coal mines curving to shrink for overseas (090831)
●Vietnam gas off-shore by American and Russin firms (090830)
●China's world resource strategy with Pakistan (090829)
●Indonesia starts procurement of coal for 10,000MW (090828)
●Bangladesh receiving $1 billion from China's assistance (090827)
●Myanmar sanction argued by US Senator (090826)
●Nepal agreed by India to support hydopower development (090825)
●Pakistan Basha dam and Bunji dam moving in China (090824)
●Vietnam has paradox in coal and power tarif (090823)
●Indonesia PLN starts 2nd 10,000MW power developmet program (090822)
●Thailand natural gas supply in trouble (090821)
●Philippines Kepco proposing smart grid with renewable energy (090820)
●LNG world market big wave with China move (090819)
●Politics of dam construction along the Salween (090818)
●Nepal prime minister to Delih for Pancheswar (090816)
●Chinese demand for foreign coal soars (090815)
●Laos Luwangprabang Nam Khan Chinese dams agreed (090814)
●Indonesian nationalism for resources and Donggi LNG (090813)
●Indian environment minister Ramesh fighting for climate change (090812)
●Srilanka comleting China's 300MW coal-fired by 2010 (090811)
●Pakistan promote 7,100MW Bunji hydropower (090809)
●Mekong River Comission to investigate 11 dams on main (090808)
●Vietnam nuclear power plan progressing to decision (090807)
●China NGO appealing to Beijin for possible dam disaster (090807)
●Myanmar ASEAN meeting Thaland took leadeship in gas and hydro (090805)
●Vietnam thermal power development and Japan firms (090803)
●Frail power sector holds Pakistani economy hostage (090802)
●India LNG investment in Cochin port Kelara (090801)

●Nepal requeting China to support hydropower project (090731)
●Mekong countries receiving US re-approach (090730)
●Thai Energy Minister for Mandalay to meet ASEAN (090729)
●Philippines natural gas to be expanded western ward (090728)
●Srilanka targetted by China, India, and Japan (090726)
●Myanmar gas pipe line to be shared by Indian firms (090724)
●India NELP VIII expolaration bidding soon (090723)
●China dam construction trouble in Yunnan (090722)
●Cambodia Kamchay and Sihanouk coal-fired progressing (090721)
●Nepal President Yadav leadership for hydro development (090720)
●Philippines indegenous energy needs big fund (090718)
●China discuss climate change with Chu US Energy Secretary (090717)
●Indian nuclear power receiving Ms Clinton visiting (090715)
●Indonesia crash program and LNG plnt (090714)
●Pakistan power shortage attacks industries (090713)
●Vietnam suffred power shortage in Summer (090712)
●India coal-fired thermal UMPP progressing (090708)

●Myanmar Arakan hydropower development Kaladan river (090707)
●Bhutan hydropower to be 10000MW by 2020 (090705)
●India Sikkim 510MW Teesta V hydro to be dedicated (090703)
●Mekong mainstream dam development opposed (090702)
●Srilanka coal-fired plant progressing with China aid (090701)

●Philippines Luzon grid stable untill 2015 (090630)
●Malaysia advanced in nuclear technology (090628)
●Thailand postponing gas production in Myanmar (090626)
●India nuclear boss emphasizing thorium resources (090625)
●Myanmar hydropower to provide to Bangladesh (090624)
●Indonesia oil and gas nationalism by the government (090623)
●Philippines Visayas renewable and coal power discussed (090622)
●Vietnam gas getting Vhvron investment 4 billion dollars (090621)
●Vietnam 1,100MW in operational by 2009 end (090619)
●Pakistan water resources to be assisted by China (090618)
●Vietnam claiming upsteram dams for delta (090617)
●India Arunachal environmental problem for hydropower (090616)
●LNG boosting in southeast Asia (090614)
●China environmental stop the Jinshajiang development (090612)
●China Begins Transition To A Clean-Energy Economy (090611)
●Bangladesh energy to be from gas and Bhutan (090610)
●Cambodia Sesan river to be developed by Vietnam (090609)
●Pakistan threats India for water with nuclear war (090608)
●Nepal Maoist chaos in with Indian hydro (090607)
●Vietnam institutional confusion to be solved in power sector (090606)
●Myanmar north and east states with China (090605)
●Mekong Secretariat will study on mainstream dams (090601)

●Indian new cabinet pushing rural electrification (090531)
●Mekong Power Summit dicussing main stream dam (090529)
●Indonesian oil production decline with irritation (090528)
●China coal production to be over capacity (090527)
●Philippines renewable energy boosting by IRR (090526)
●India nuclear development progressing with GEHitachi (090525)
●China curbing its energy policy to nuclear and green (090524)
●Indonesia second crash program geothermal (090523)
●Thailand PTT expanding its petroleum production (090522)
●Philippines struggling in high power rates (090521)
●China Yellow river Laxia hydropower operationasl (090520)
●Relation between India and Pakistan crucial (090518)
●Laos hydropower projects again moving (090517)
●Philippines coal-fired bidding out to IPPA (090516)

●India RIL's gas project goes on steam (090402)

●Smart Grid will only be as good as security behind it (090328)
●Bhutan developping 10,000MW with India (090327)
●Bhutan developping 10,000MW with India (090326)
●India and Pakistan disputing Kishanganga (090325)
●India and USA cooperation in Nuclear and solar (090324)

●Myanmar proceeding dams of 35 sites (080323)
●India more hydropower against China plan (080322)
●Clean cars charge up on dirty electricity (090321)
●India enjoying cheap LNG price saving money (090320)
●Indonesia's LNG going to Europe no to Japan (090319)
●Obama' regime will not turn backs on coal (090315)
●China developping two hydro and two wind power (090313)
●Nepal and Germany for Marsyangdi Hydro development (090312)
●Obama's smart grid moves Google and Oracle (090311)
●Cambodia small hydropower development (090310)
●India's coal-fired thermal progress in financial (090309)
●Srilanka power sector turning for hydro and coal (090308)
●Vietnam National Assembly working for resettlement villagers (090306)
●South Asia energy development cooperation (090305)
●Vietnam Power development for gas in O Mon (090304)
●6000MW hydro project moving at boudary between India and Nepal (090303)

●Philippines Energy plan to review due economic slump (090227)
●NHA applauds Secretary Chu's comments on pumped storage (090226)
●Indonesia's aircrft problem causes Power delay (090225)
●Pakistan Zardari visits Three Gorges dam in China (090224)
●Chinese utility tries to join electricity pioneers (090223)
●Pakistan Neelum-Jherum hydro started (090222)
●Indonesia possibly fail second fast track (090221)
●Why Vietnam Power Project delaying (090220)
●Nepal India Follow-up push to bilateral commitments (090219)
●Nepal Upper-Tamakoshoi hydro exoand to 456MW (090218)
●Indonesia Japan new deal of LNG (090217)
●ADB to provide US$ 106 million for Bhutan (090815)
●Vietnam Son la dam happens crac (090214)

●Indonesia get China loan more strict (090213)
●Cambodia dam start construction (090212)
● Indon eian Energy Changes (090211)

Accelerating India’s nuclear development (081003)
Tibetan Plateau water source for continent (081002)
India's power distribution reform (081001)
● Renewable Energy Bill in Philippines (080929)
● Indonesia's bio-fuel (080928)
Salween river dam development (080927)
China and the Mekong Basin Conference (080926)
India, 60,000MW hydropower by 2025 (080925)
China and India in a scramble for Nepal (080924)
The root cause of Vietnam's power shortage (080923)
●India's Initiative for South Asia power grid (080922)
Pakistan's private thermal power development (080921)
India,600,000 MW nuclear power development (080920)
Nepal's hydropower development challenge outback (080919)
Cambodia's hydropower development study (080918)
●India's power transmission corporation division (080915)
Kosi River in India and Nepal's problems (080914)
Thailand natural gas power obsessed(080913)
●India's coal red light (080912)
India, Tata, 10,000 MW development (080911)
Indonesia's crude oil production decline (080910)
India's power reform and pool market (080909)
Vietnam's power crisis continues (080908)
Indonesia's second Crash Program (080907)
China and India race to capture the uranium (080906)
India's gas to Warring Period (080905)
India's hydropower development delay (080904)
●Myanmar's hydro and natural gas (080903)
●Power crisis in Indonesia (080902)
●India and Nepal river management (080901)
●India's natural gas production (080831)
●China and Vietnam in Laos (080830)

Any comment, please
PGA02435@nifty.com

Back


Asian Energy Map


大きな地図で見る

Back


Whole web

カスタム検索

This web site

カスタム検索

元へ戻る



[プレスブログ]価値あるブログに掲載料をお支払いします。

プレスブログ


海外出張直前重要サイト
通貨換算||時差||電話コード||フライト一覧||ホテル予約||各地気象||世界天気予報|| 海外安全情報|| 海外用品|海外医療||海外出張支援|| 海外赴任ナビ|| 成田へ|| 羽田へ|| 関空へ|| 伊丹へ|| ロンリプラネット|

| 鈴木篁氏] | Livedoor | |@nifty| | Gmail | |Bangkok Post| |Manila Bulletin| |Jakarta Post| |Economic Times| |時事通信| |ZAKZAK|

○https://www.blogger.com/start?hl=ja ○http://www.google.com/intl/en/press/intl-zeitgeist.html ○http://translate.google.com/translate_t?hl=ja# ○http://maps.google.com/maps?hl=ja&tab=wl 城km z http://news.google.com/news?hl=ja&sa=N&tab=ln&q= ○https://www.google.com/adsense/login3 ○http://mail.google.com/mail/#inboxhttp://www.google.com/ig?hl=jahttps://www.google.com/webmasters/tools/docs/ja/about.htmlhttps://www.google.com/webmasters/tools/summary?siteUrl=http%3A%2F%2Fmy.reset.jp%2F%7Eadachihayao%2F&hl=ja





by CyberBuzz


**************
Current crude oil price (return to top)


If efficiency 40%, unit price per KWh = 10.4 cents


**************
Coal price (return to top)
(by infomine,please click picture zone)


If efficiency 40%, unit price per KWh = 1.73 cents


**************
Natural gas price (return to top)
(by USEIA,please click picture zone)



If efficiency 40%, unit price per KWh = 3.07 cents


**************
Vientiane river water level (return to top)
(by MRC,please click picture zone)


| HOME | |サイトマップ | | 自己紹介| | 足立隼夫の主張 | | 各国訪問写真記録 | | English Version | | プロジェクト位置図 |
|日刊 アジアのエネルギー最前線| |週刊 アフリカのエネルギー最前線 | | 週刊 中央アジアのエネルギー最前線 | | オバマのエネルギー |
|週刊 中南米のエネルギー最前線| | 週刊 再生可能エネルギー最前線 | | 週刊 中東のエネルギー最前線 | | 世界の地球温暖化最前線 |

お問い合わせまたはご意見は下記メールアドレスへ
PGA02435@nifty.com

元へ戻る